Definitions, generic design solutions, number of exits, exits' width, egress route length, width and incline of stairs and stairwells, exits from stairwells etc - under development

 

REGULATED PARAMETERS

OF EVACUATION ROUTES AND EXITS

 ***

Basic definitions

General requirements for an evacuation route

Evacuation routes within initial premises

Evacuation routes on floors (via corridors)

Evacuation routes via stairways

Evacuation of handicapped and immobile persons

***

 

Basic definitions

 Evacuation is a process involving organized and independent movement of people to the outdoors or to a safe zone within buildings when faced with hazardous fire factors.

Evacuation route is a route followed by people and (or) along which people are transported to the outdoors or to a safe zone, which meets the requirements for safe evacuation of people in the event of a fire.

Evacuation exit is an exit taking people to an evacuation route, to the outdoors or to a safe zone.

Article 2 [1]

 

General requirements for evacuation routes

 

Fig.1. Evacuation exits from rooms on the 1st floor

  

Route numbers

Description of the evacuation route

from rooms on the first floor to the outdoors:

1

direct

2

via corridor

3

via vestibule (lobby)

4

via staircase

5

via corridor and vestibule (lobby)

6

via corridor and staircase

7

to an adjacent room (other than category A or B room) with evacuation exits

 

Fig.1b. Evacuation exits from rooms on any floor other than first

Route numbers

Description of evacuation routes from rooms on any floor other than first:

1

directly to staircase or stairway of the 3rd type* (open outside building)

2

to corridor leading directly to staircase or stairway of the 3rd type

3

to hall (lobby) exiting directly to staircase or stairway of the 3rd type

4

to an adjacent room (other than category A or B room) with evacuation exits

Note. The use of stairway of the 3rd type is limited.

 Article 89 [1]

 

Evacuation routes within initial premises

 Additionally, in all cases regulations apply to the door opening direction, the number of exits from rooms and the floor, the uniform distribution of evacuation exits, the fire retardant properties of finishing along evacuation routes, elevation differences along evacuation routes, and suchlike.

The clear height of evacuation exits must be at least 1.9 meters and clear width, as a rule, at least 0.8 meters (under item 4.2.5 [2]), Tables 1, 2.

 Table 1. Width of exits from rooms

Type of building/room

Exit width, m

Public

 

 

 

0.8 1.2 m (1.2 m when the number of evacuees exceeds 50)

Residential

 

Industrial

 

General requirements for buildings and structures under Code of Rules 1.13130.2009

At least 0.8 m, but in any case no less than the width of a stretcher with a person being carried 4.2.5 [2]

  

Table 2. Number of exits from rooms

Type of building/room

Number of exits

Public

 

At least two for rooms designed to accommodate more than 50 persons simultaneously or if the passage from the farthermost point in the room to the exit exceeds 25 m in length 7.1.26 [2].

Residential

 

At least two for rooms designed to accommodate more than 50 persons simultaneously or if the passage from the farthermost point in the room to the exit exceeds 25 m in length 5.3.27 [2].

Industrial

 

At least two for rooms exposed to explosion hazard with more than 5 workers; for rooms exposed to fire hazard with more than 25 workers or an area exceeding 1,000 m2 9.1.1 [2]

General requirements for buildings and structures under Code of Rules 1.13130.2009

At least two for basement and ground floors with a floor space in excess of 300 m2 designed for accommodating more than 15 persons simultaneously, and for rooms on any floor, which accommodate over 50 persons. Items 4.2.1, 4.2.2 [2].

 

 The requirements for evacuation routes from crowded rooms theaters, shopping and exhibition centers, sports arenas, etc. are provided in Table 3.

Table 3

Main regulated parameters of evacuation routes from crowded rooms 

 

Regulated parameter

 

 

Value

 

Depends on

 

Reference to item of regulations

Distance from the farthermost point to the exit

10-80 m

Degree of building fire resistance, building category, structural fire safety class, hall (room) purpose and volume.

7.2.2 [2]

Combined width of exits from halls (rooms)

40-275 persons per 1 meter of exit width

 

Degree of building fire resistance, purpose of the hall (room), ratio between the areas of main evacuation passages and the hall area (Fig. 4).

7.2.3 [2]

          At sports and entertainment facilities, the number of persons per 1 meter of width of evacuation routes from the grandstands of open-air sports facilities is regulated in the range of 300 to 1,230 persons (item 6.4.4 [2]); the number of evacuees per each exit (hatch) in open-air sports facilities should not exceed 600 persons (item 6.2.10 [2]); and the width of evacuation routes in grandstands ranges from 1 to 1.5 m (item 6.4.5 [2]).

 

Evacuation routes on floors

 The clear height of horizontal sections of evacuation routes must be at least 2 m, the width of horizontal sections of evacuation routes and ramps should be, as a rule, at least 0.7-1 m (item 4.3.4 [2]).

The main regulated parameters for corridors are their width, length of passages, and width of the exit from the corridor to the staircase. As a rule, the length is dependent on the location of the room whether it be between staircases or in a dead-end corridor or hall and should be determined depending on the density of traffic, the degree of fire resistance and functional purpose of the building. Table 4.

Table 4

Regulated values of the length of evacuation routes

Type of building (regulatory document)

Distance along evacuation routes from room door to the exit to the outdoors or to a staircase, within

Reference to item of regulations

Dead-end corridor

Between staircases

lmin, m

lmax, m

lmin, m

lmax, m

Residential

Public

Industrial

Parking lots:

underground

aboveground

10

5

8

 

20

25

25

30

30

 

20

25

20

10

35

 

40

60

40

60

180

 

40

60

Item 5.4.3 [2]

Item 7.1.22 [2]

Item 9.2.10 [2]

 

Item 9.4.3 [2]

 The width of evacuation exits from the corridor to staircase and the width of the flight of stairs is provided in Table 5.

Table 5

Width of evacuation exits from corridor to staircase

(and width of the flight of stairs)

Building type

Number of persons per 1 m of the width of the evacuation exit from the corridor, within

Depends on

Min

Max

 

Public buildings

80

165

Degree of fire resistance, building purpose (item 7.1.20 [20])

Industrial buildings

85

260

Degree of fire resistance, building structural fire hazard class, room volume and category (item 9.2.12. [2]).

 

Table 6. Number of exits from the floor

Type of building/room

Number of exits

Public

 

At least two, item 7.1.11[2]

Residential

 

At least two, under item 5.3.11[2], as well as for building floors with apartments with a combined floor space of 500 m2 5.4.2 [2]

Industrial

 

At least two for floors exposed to explosion and fire hazards with more than 5 workers; for floors exposed to fire hazards with more than 25 workers 9.1.2 [2]

General requirements for buildings and structures under Code of Rules 1.13130.2009

At least two if the floor includes a room that should have at least two evacuation exits. Item 4.2.3 [2].

 

Evacuation routes via stairs and ramps

         It is prohibited to build spiral staircases, stairs that are fully or partially curvilinear in profile, as well as dancing steps or curvilinear steps, steps with tread boards of varying width and height within a single flight of stairs and staircase along evacuation routes (Item 4.3.4 [2]).

        The requirements for the width and slope of stairways and ramps are provided in Table 7.

Table 7

Width and slopes of stairways and ramps

Building type

Flight of stairs width, m

Slope of stairway

Ramp width, m

Slope of ramp

Public under Code of Rules 1.13130.2009

 

No less than the width of the exit from the floor, but at least 0.9-1.35 m or 80-165 persons per 1 flight of stairs (Item 7.1.5)

No more than 1:2, up to 1:1.5

(Item 7.1.4)

No more than 1.2 m

(Item 7.1.14)

1:12 1:6

(Item 7.1.4)

Residential under Code of Rules 1.13130.2009

 

0.9-1.35

(Item 5.3.5)

1:1.5 -1:1.2

(Item 5.3.4)

 

-

1:12 -1:6

(Item 5.3.4)

Industrial under Code of Rules 1.13130.2009

 

0.6 m per 100 evacuees (Item 9.2.9)

 

 

-

At least 1.2 m

(Item 9.1.5)

 

-

General requirements for buildings and structures under Code of Rules 1.13130.2009

0.9-1.35 (Item 4.4.1)

No more than 1:1 (Item 4.4.2)

0.7-1.2

(Item 4.3.4)

No more than 1:6 (Item 4.3.4)

 

The regulations in force require for the width of the stair landing to be at least the width of the flight of stairs and for the width of the flight of stairs to be at least the width of the exit to the staircase (Item 4.4.3 [2]), since otherwise the condition of unobstructed passage may not be upheld.

Staircases must have an exit to the outdoors onto the territory adjoining the  building directly or via a vestibule that is separated from the adjoining corridors with partitions with doors (Item 4.4.6 [2]).

Evacuation exits from basement and ground floors must be planned, as a rule, to connect directly with the outdoors and be separate from common staircases of the building. It is permitted to plan evacuation exits from basements via common staircases as long as they have a separate exit to the outdoors separated from the remainder of the staircase with a solid fire-retardant partition of the 1st type.

Outdoor open stairways can be used for evacuation only from the second floor of buildings (except at buildings of schools and boarding schools, kindergartens, etc.) and must be calculated for the number of evacuees in the range of 30 to 70 persons (under Item 8.1.14 [2]).

The fire safety requirements that apply to using indoor open stairways for evacuation are provided in Table 8.

 Table 8

Indoor open stairways in public buildings

No.

Design solution being considered

Conditions of design solution admissibility

Reference to item of regulations

1

Indoor open stairway running the entire height of the building

1. Building fire resistance degree I or II

2. Only one indoor open stairway in the building

3. Rooms with this stairway are separated from adjoining corridors and other rooms by means of fire-retardant partitions. When an automatic fire suppression system is installed in the entire building, it is not obligatory to separate the rooms with the open stairway from corridors and other rooms by means of partitions.

Item 4.4.10 [2]

2.

Indoor open stairway from the vestibule to the second floor

1. Building fire resistance degree I III

2. The vestibule is separated from corridors and other rooms by means of fire-retardant partitions with ordinary doors and fire-retardant floor and ceiling decks.

Item 4.4.11 [2]

3.

Indoor open stairway from the vestibule to the level of the next floor in the complex of audience halls in theaters

1. No more than two such stairways in the building

2. At least two additional closed staircases in the building.

3. Isolated evacuations routes on the upper floors, leading to closed staircases.

Item 6.2.5 [2]

4.

Internal open stairway from the first to the second floor at commercial retail buildings

1. Building fire resistance degree I or II

2. Taken into account only for one half of evacuees

3. At least two closed staircases should be planned for the evacuation of other buyers.

4. The length of passage along the open staircases should be added to the distance from the farthermost point in the hall to the evacuation exit connecting with the outdoors.

5. If the stairway from the basement or ground floor connects with the vestibule on the first floor, all stairways in the aboveground portion of the building, except the exit to this vestibule, must have direct exits to the outdoors.

Item 7.2.1 [2]

5

Internal open stairway from the ground floor to the first floor at commercial retail buildings

 At inpatient healthcare institutions, open stairways are not taken into account when planning evacuation of people in case of a fire (under item 7.5.3 [2]).

 

Evacuation of handicapped and immobile persons

In all cases the width of the evacuation exit must be sufficient for unobstructed passage of people carrying a stretcher with a person via the opening or door, taking into account the geometry of the evacuation route (under Item 6.16 [3]).

Seats for handicapped persons in audience halls must be located in separate rows leading to a separate evacuation route that does not intersect with evacuation routes for the remaining spectators.

Seats for spectators with impaired musculoskeletal systems at grandstands of sports arenas and sports and entertainment facilities must be planned in a zone directly adjacent to the grandstand exit (under item 3.41 [3]).

The clear width of evacuation passages inside rooms must be at least 1.2 m, corridors at least 1.8 m (under item 3.42 [3]).

The width of the flight of stairs, as a rule, should be 1.35 m. Wider tread boards of at least 0.3 m in width and lower tread rises (not to exceed 0.15 m) are required for evacuation routes. The stairway slope must not exceed 1:2 (under item 3.28 [3]).

If handicapped persons are unable to evacuate from the building before dangerous fire factors reach critical levels, a fire-safe zone must be planned for all evacuees that are held back, measuring 1.0 to 2.65 m2 of zone space per person (under item 3.46 [3]). Notably, fire-safe zones must be planned near vertical service lines or designed as a single whole with an exit to an H1-type smoke-free staircase or to a ramp room with similar wall structures (under item 3.47 [3]).

 

Regulatory documents

1.    Federal Law No. 123 Technical regulations on fire safety requirements. Adopted by the State Duma on July 5, 2008.

2.    Code of Rules 1.13130.2009. Fire Protection Systems. Evacuation routes and exits.

3.    Construction Norms and Rules 35-01-2001 Accessibility of buildings and structures for handicapped persons".

 

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