Prof Kholshevnikov V.V., Dr Samoshin D.A.

Moscow, Academy of State Fire Service, EMERCOM of Russia, 2009.-212 pages.

Recommended by
united education committee of architectural universities of Russian Federation for students studying under specialty 27010 Industrial and civil engineering, direction 270100 Construction.

Basic factors influencing human behavior in fire and typical human actions warned about fire are described in the book. There are listed parameters of pedestrian flow and psychophysical relations between them. Mathematically described basic cases of pedestrian flow movement and examples of calculation are given. Fire safety requirements for evacuation routes and exits and principle of building codes development are discussed.
The book follows the requirement of Russian State Education Standard Life safety and course program for Fire Safety in Building. Textbook supposed for students of fire technical, building and architectural institutions and also for design bureau, fire and building supervision departments.

Interesting facts:
last textbook covering these issues was published in Russia 30 years ago (authors Predtechenskii and Milinskii);
154 bibliographic references (including 25 thesis) were used;
107 figures and 48 tables in the book;
4 chapters supported with 13 appendices;




1.1 Dangerous fire factors

1.2 Human behavior before evacuation

1.3 Human flow

1.4 Evacuation routes and exits


Appendix 1.1. Additional data about dangerous fire factors

Appendix 1.2. Requirements for developing evacuation plan

Appendix 1.3. Area of horizontal peoples projection

Appendix 1.4. Anthropometrical and argonomical human data




2.1. Kinematical laws of human flow

2.1.1. Movement through the border of adjoining sector

2.1.2. Merging of human flows

2.1.3. Reforming and divergence of human flow

2.1.4. Simultaneous merging and reforming of human flow on the sectors with limited length

2.2. Psychophysical law for parameters of human flows

2.2.1. Empirical data

2.2.2. Stochasticity of human flow

2.2.3. Travel speed and density of flow

2.2.4. Travel speed and emotions of pedestrians

2.3. Evacuation of disabled people with low mobility and non-mobile people


Appendix 2.1. Hospital patients description according their mobility

Appendix 2.2. Means of non-mobile hospital patients evacuation




3.1. Modeling and calculating of human flow with random structure

3.2. From architectural floor plan to particular evacuation schema for calculations

3.3. Homogeneous flow model without devergence

3.4. Homogeneous flow model with devergence of their foreparts

3.5. Computer model ADLPV (Analysis of Human Flow, Probability)

3.6. Modeling of unimpeded (without density influence) pedestrian movement


Appendix 3.1. Calculating of elementary flow  and its graphical presentation

Appendix 3.2. Relations between travel speed and density of flow for pedestrians with various mobile characteristics

Appendix 3.3. Staged evacuation calculations

Appendix 3.4. Basic cases of flow movement and examples of their calculations




4.1. History of fire safety requirement for evacuation routes and exits

4.2. Headway of evacuation safety in building codes

4.3. Pre-movement time

4.4. Available safe escape time

4.5. Requirements for movement without congestion in building codes

4.6. Probability of safe evacuation

4.7. Organization and management of building evacuation


Appendix 4.1. Required safe egress time in accordance with SNIP II-2-80, appendix 1, part 2.

Appendix 4.2. Recommendations for correcting evacuation requirements in building codes (an example for SNIP 2.08.02-89*)

Appendix 4.3. Pre-movement time according to PD 7974-9:2004

List of references 


 Chapter 1. Initial concepts and definitions

 The criteria for safe evacuation of people have been given timeliness and unimpeded. The hazardous factors of fire situation and methods of their calculation have been considered. Basic characteristics of human behavior in case of fires, including the psychophysical mechanisms of panic, the conditions of its occurrence and prevention have been described. The experimental techniques and methods of human traffic flow field studies have been illustrated. The structure of the human flow and its parameters density, speed, intensity, amount of human traffic flow and fundamental diagrams have been studied.

 The basic requirements for construction of evacuation routes and exits have been examined. In the areas of initial people stay the distance from the most remote point to the exit, the width of paths within the premises, the width of exits, the maximum permissible floor for location of people and the capacity of facilities to mass stay of people are standardized. The main standardized parameters for corridors are width, capacity of dead-ended corridors, the length of route and the width of an exit from the corridor to the stairwell. If evacuation is performed by stairs and ramps then the slope, width, the width of doors at the entrance to a stairwell (to the ramp) and exit from it, the number and size of steps within a flight, the presence of railings and fences, etc. are standardized. In all cases the height of escape routes, the direction of door opening, dispersion, light, etc. are standardized.

 Chapter 1 contains 4 Annexes.

 Chapter 2. The laws of human flow movement

 This chapter discusses kinematic patterns of human flows in the following situations:

1. Movement across the borders of adjacent route sections;

2. Merging of human flows;

3. Reforming and spreading of human flows;

4. Merging and spreading within limited length sections.

 Psychophysical patterns of relations between the human flow parameters are analyzed. The data used to define them were obtained in the decades of human flows studies. They represent statistical data from more than 30,000 measurements of human flow parameters concerning the flows on various kinds of routes. The influence of human flow density on the flow speed for different types of routes has been described. The impact of emotional state of people on the speed of their movement is also considered. Attention has been drawn to the human flow stochasticity. Both deterministic relations between the parameters of the human flow and parameters described by using a random function have been given.

 Movement of physically impaired people (i.e. a group of people with limited mobility) along different kinds of routes within the flow has been illustrated. The parameters that describe the movement of hearing-impaired people (M1 group), infirm people whose mobility is impacted by aging, people with artificial limbs and sight-impaired people (M2 group), people using crutches and sticks when moving (M3 group), and people moving in wheelchairs (M4 group). The distinctive features of immobile people evacuation are also considered.

 Chapter 2 contains 2 Annexes.

 Chapter 3. Modeling and calculation of human flows

 This chapter describes human flow models used to design evacuation routes.  An example of human flow calculation with grapho-analytical method proposed by Professor S. Belyaev in 1938 has been examinated.

 The model of homogeneous human flow without front parts spreading is examined. The model is based on the fact that the front and closing parts of the flow consist of a small number of people from the main part of the flow, so the flow is considered as a rectangle. The model of human flows with their front parts spreading has been analyzed. The model takes into account the front part spreading and the subsequent reorganization of the flow parts with different densities, which allows to estimate the flow traffic parameters, but makes the calculations more time-consuming.

 The ADLPV human flow model (human flow traffic analysis, probability) has been implemented by means of computer. Examples of calculation and their comparison with the results obtained using the models for manual calculation have been presented. The reasons for discrepancies of the results have been analyzed.

 A simulation of free movement of people in the flow (with density having no effect on speed) has been shown. Examples of calculating the movement of people in the city within the block of public buildings have been given.

 The principles of algorithm creation for phased evacuation from high-rise building including the use of elevators have been presented. The examples of human flow parameters calculations have been presented in case of:

          crossing the border of the adjacent routes;

          merging of human flows;

          traffic jaw formation.

 The example of calculating the time people need to get out of the evacuation route section in case of forming flocks in the place of human flows merging has also been presented. The example of calculating the number of people forming a flock, and the example of determining the human flow parameters at the route section after forming the flock on its border have been given.

 Chapter 3 contains 4 Annexes.


Chapter 4. Safe evacuation requirements in state building codes

 The history of regulations of escape routes and exits since the construction rules of St. Petersburg 1886 has been provided. The conditions for safe evacuation of people timeliness (the evacuation before the critical values of fire hazards) and unimpeded (injury free evacuation without forming high density flows) has been given. There are regulatory requirements for the start of the evacuation. The typical time stages reflecting the development of fire and evacuation of people have been considered: the inertia of automatic fire fighting systems, the time operator enables the alert system, message transmission time, the time needed to prepare the evacuation, the actual process of evacuation and rescue of people not evacuated in the required time.

 The parameter values of human flows used for calculation and standardization of the safe evacuation of people have been given. The engineering and legal foundations for the phased evacuation of high-rise buildings, including the use of elevators have been considered.

 The existing approaches to fire risks calculation have been critically reviewed and proposals to address the existing discrepancies have been developed.

 Chapter 4 contains 3 Annexes.


More information: Dr Dmitry Samoshin
Academy of State Fire Service of Russia
info@FireEvacuation.ru, +7 916 299 9924


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