united education committee of architectural universities of
Russian Federation for students studying under specialty
27010 ”Industrial and civil engineering”, direction 270100 “Construction”.
Basic factors influencing human behavior in fire and typical
human actions warned about fire are described in the book.
There are listed parameters of pedestrian flow and
psychophysical relations between them. Mathematically
described basic cases of pedestrian flow movement and
examples of calculation are given. Fire safety requirements
for evacuation routes and exits and principle of building
codes development are discussed.
The book follows the requirement of Russian State Education
Standard “Life safety” and course program for “Fire Safety
in Building”. Textbook supposed for students of fire
technical, building and architectural institutions and also
for design bureau, fire and building supervision departments.
• last textbook covering these issues was published in
Russia 30 years ago (authors Predtechenskii and Milinskii);
• 154 bibliographic references (including 25 thesis) were
• 107 figures and 48 tables in the book;
• 4 chapters supported with 13 appendices;
CHAPTER 1. INITIAL CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS
1.1 Dangerous fire factors
1.2 Human behavior before evacuation
1.3 Human flow
1.4 Evacuation routes and exits
Appendix 1.1. Additional data about dangerous fire factors
Appendix 1.2. Requirements for developing evacuation plan
Appendix 1.3. Area of horizontal people’s projection
Appendix 1.4. Anthropometrical and argonomical human data
CHAPTER 2. THE LAWS OF HUMAN FLOW MOVEMENT
2.1. Kinematical laws of human flow
2.1.1. Movement through the border of adjoining sector
2.1.2. Merging of human flows
2.1.3. Reforming and divergence of human flow
2.1.4. Simultaneous merging and reforming of human flow on
the sectors with limited length
2.2. Psychophysical law for parameters of human flows
2.2.1. Empirical data
2.2.2. Stochasticity of human flow
2.2.3. Travel speed and density of flow
2.2.4. Travel speed and emotions of pedestrians
2.3. Evacuation of disabled people with low mobility and
Appendix 2.1. Hospital patients description according their
Appendix 2.2. Means of non-mobile hospital patients
CHAPTER 3. MODELING AND CALCULATING OF HUMAN FLOWS
3.1. Modeling and calculating of human flow with random
3.2. From architectural floor plan to particular evacuation
schema for calculations
3.3. Homogeneous flow model without devergence
3.4. Homogeneous flow model with devergence of their
3.5. Computer model ADLPV (Analysis of Human Flow,
3.6. Modeling of unimpeded (without density influence)
Appendix 3.1. Calculating of “elementary” flow and its
Appendix 3.2. Relations between travel speed and density of
flow for pedestrians with various mobile characteristics
Appendix 3.3. Staged evacuation calculations
Appendix 3.4. Basic cases of flow movement and examples of
CHAPTER 4. SAFE EVACUATION REQUIREMENTS IN STATE BUILDING
4.1. History of fire safety requirement for evacuation
routes and exits
4.2. Headway of evacuation safety in building codes
4.3. Pre-movement time
4.4. Available safe escape time
4.5. Requirements for movement without congestion in
4.6. Probability of safe evacuation
4.7. Organization and management of building evacuation
Appendix 4.1. Required safe egress time in accordance with
SNIP II-2-80, appendix 1, part 2.
Appendix 4.2. Recommendations for correcting evacuation
requirements in building codes (an example for SNIP
Appendix 4.3. Pre-movement time according to PD 7974-9:2004
List of references
Chapter 1. Initial concepts and definitions
The criteria for safe evacuation of people have been given
– timeliness and unimpeded. The hazardous factors of fire
situation and methods of their calculation have been
considered. Basic characteristics of human behavior in case
of fires, including the psychophysical mechanisms of panic,
the conditions of its occurrence and prevention have been
described. The experimental techniques and methods of human
traffic flow field studies have been illustrated. The
structure of the human flow and its parameters –density,
speed, intensity, amount of human traffic flow and
fundamental diagrams – have been studied.
The basic requirements for construction of evacuation
routes and exits have been examined. In the areas of initial
people stay the distance from the most remote point to the
exit, the width of paths within the premises, the width of
exits, the maximum permissible floor for location of people
and the capacity of facilities to mass stay of people are
standardized. The main standardized parameters for corridors
are width, capacity of dead-ended corridors, the length of
route and the width of an exit from the corridor to the
stairwell. If evacuation is performed by stairs and ramps
then the slope, width, the width of doors at the entrance to
a stairwell (to the ramp) and exit from it, the number and
size of steps within a flight, the presence of railings and
fences, etc. are standardized. In all cases the height of
escape routes, the direction of door opening, dispersion,
light, etc. are standardized.
Chapter 1 contains 4 Annexes.
2. The laws of human flow movement
This chapter discusses kinematic patterns of human flows in
the following situations:
1. Movement across the borders of adjacent route sections;
2. Merging of human flows;
3. Reforming and spreading of human flows;
4. Merging and spreading within limited length sections.
Psychophysical patterns of relations between the human flow
parameters are analyzed. The data used to define them were
obtained in the decades of human flows studies. They
represent statistical data from more than 30,000
measurements of human flow parameters concerning the flows
on various kinds of routes. The influence of human flow
density on the flow speed for different types of routes has
been described. The impact of emotional state of people on
the speed of their movement is also considered. Attention
has been drawn to the human flow stochasticity. Both
deterministic relations between the parameters of the human
flow and parameters described by using a random function
have been given.
Movement of physically impaired people (i.e. a group of
people with limited mobility) along different kinds of
routes within the flow has been illustrated. The parameters
that describe the movement of hearing-impaired people (M1
group), infirm people whose mobility is impacted by aging,
people with artificial limbs and sight-impaired people (M2
group), people using crutches and sticks when moving (M3
group), and people moving in wheelchairs (M4 group). The
distinctive features of immobile people evacuation are also
Chapter 2 contains 2 Annexes.
3. Modeling and calculation of human flows
This chapter describes human flow models used to design
evacuation routes. An example of human flow calculation
with grapho-analytical method proposed by Professor S.
Belyaev in 1938 has been examinated.
The model of homogeneous human flow without front parts
spreading is examined. The model is based on the fact that
the front and closing parts of the flow consist of a small
number of people from the main part of the flow, so the flow
is considered as a rectangle. The model of human flows with
their front parts spreading has been analyzed. The model
takes into account the front part spreading and the
subsequent reorganization of the flow parts with different
densities, which allows to estimate the flow traffic
parameters, but makes the calculations more time-consuming.
The ADLPV human flow model (human flow traffic analysis,
probability) has been implemented by means of computer.
Examples of calculation and their comparison with the
results obtained using the models for manual calculation
have been presented. The reasons for discrepancies of the
results have been analyzed.
A simulation of free movement of people in the flow (with
density having no effect on speed) has been shown. Examples
of calculating the movement of people in the city within the
block of public buildings have been given.
The principles of algorithm creation for phased evacuation
from high-rise building including the use of elevators have
been presented. The examples of human flow parameters
calculations have been presented in case of:
• crossing the border of the adjacent routes;
• merging of human flows;
• traffic jaw formation.
The example of calculating the time people need to get out
of the evacuation route section in case of forming flocks in
the place of human flows merging has also been presented.
The example of calculating the number of people forming a
flock, and the example of determining the human flow
parameters at the route section after forming the flock on
its border have been given.
Chapter 3 contains 4 Annexes.
Chapter 4. Safe evacuation requirements in state building
The history of regulations of escape routes and exits since
the construction rules of St. Petersburg 1886 has been
provided. The conditions for safe evacuation of people –
timeliness (the evacuation before the critical values of
fire hazards) and unimpeded (injury free evacuation without
forming high density flows) has been given. There are
regulatory requirements for the start of the evacuation. The
typical time stages reflecting the development of fire and
evacuation of people have been considered: the inertia of
automatic fire fighting systems, the time operator enables
the alert system, message transmission time, the time needed
to prepare the evacuation, the actual process of evacuation
and rescue of people not evacuated in the required time.
The parameter values of human flows used for calculation
and standardization of the safe evacuation of people have
been given. The engineering and legal foundations for the
phased evacuation of high-rise buildings, including the use
of elevators have been considered.
The existing approaches to fire risks calculation have been
critically reviewed and proposals to address the existing
discrepancies have been developed.
Chapter 4 contains 3 Annexes.
More information: Dr Dmitry Samoshin
Academy of State Fire Service of Russia
info@FireEvacuation.ru, +7 916 299 9924